Patients are treated with medications that cause the ovary to produce multiple mature eggs. It is used in conditions such as Polycystic ovaries (a hormonal imbalance resulting in lack of ovulation, irregular periods and infertility).
Semen is processed in the laboratory to enhance the proportion of normal active sperm. It is then placed directly into the uterus using one of many various specialized catheters.
Eggs are obtained from the ovaries by inserting an aspiration needle by way of the vagina. The eggs are then cleaned and processed sperm is then added to the droplet containing the egg. Fertilization then occurs. The now fertilized egg is called zygote. Zygotes develop into embryos. After three to five days the embryos are placed into the uterus.
The process of a single sperm being injected into an oocyte (egg or ovum that is produced inside the ovary) using micro-manipulation equipment. Useful when there are very few sperm or in sperm that are unable to fertilize.
When the embryo reaches five days of development it is called a blastocyst. Transferring the blastocyst on day 5 enhances the pregnancy rates and reduces the risk of multiple pregnancies.
When sperm are unable to move through the genital tract due to uncorrectable blockage, sperm can be extracted directly from the epididymis and/or the testicles. These sperm are then used to fertilize the egg using ICSI (see above).
This is fine and delicate surgery requiring magnification often using a microscope. It is used to reconnect tied tubes after sterilization or repair blocked fallopian tubes or reverse previous tubal ligation.
These eggs are donated for patients who have lost their ovaries, have premature ovarian failure or advanced maternal age help achieve pregnancy. Sperm that has been donated (known or anonymously) used in men with no sperm. Commercial sperm banks screen prospective sperm donors with a battery of genetic tests for sexually transmitted diseases including HIV before releasing sperm. Physical characteristics are provided to help match various traits as desired.
These are women who have eggs but an inability to use or lack of a uterus require other screened women to gestate their embryos.